What is Reproduction?
How do organisms reproduce modes of reproduction generally when we think reproduction we consider two organisms for the process one male and one female but in some cases a single organism can reproduce without any pairing this is called asexual reproduction different organisms show different modes of asexual reproduction before we see them with examples if you haven’t subscribed to our channel please subscribe and press the bell icon to get all the latest updates the first mode of asexual reproduction is binary fission binary fission means splitting into two amoeba a single-celled organism reproduces by splitting into two it can split in any direction because.
It has no specific shape but organisms like Leishmania splits in a specific direction as it has specific shape2. Multiple fission means splitting into many some single-celled organisms like Plasmodium divides into many this is called multiple fission 3. Fragmentation spirogyra an alga breaks into fragments and each fragment grows into a new organism this mode is called fragmentation for regeneration planaria and Hydra if these organisms are cut into pieces each piece can grow up into a complete individual this is called regeneration budding Hydra produce buds on their bodies.
These buds get separated and can grow as an individual this is budding vegetative propagation in many plants their cut body parts can be planted in the soil to get new plants this is called visit a to propagation stem cuttings in roses sugarcane root cuttings in carrot but cuttings in put at or examples spore formation it is the other method of a sexual reproduction spirogyra a fungus produces sports if these spores find suitable conditions they germinate into new spirogyra this.
How organisms reproduce asexually sexual reproduction?
In flowering plants do you know will the reproductive parts of a plant are located the reproductive parts of the plant are located in the flower here is a flower let us identify the reproductive parts in it look at the reproductive parts inside the flower this is the female reproductive part of the plant it is called pistol it has three parts stigma style and ovary these are the male reproductive parts it is called stamen.
It has two parts anther and filament do you think flowers of all plants have both the male and female parts no in plants like watermelon and papaya the flowers are unisexual that means male and female flowers are separate whereas in plants like hibiscus and mustard the flowers are bisexual that means a flower with both male and female parts what do these reproductive parts do they produce the reproductive cells are germ cells.
And there is the part where male reproductive cells are produced it produces pollen grains that are a low it ion color each pollen grain contains two germ cells and one pollen nuclei the ovary contains ovules each of you’ll consists of female reproductive cell or egg cell you know that fertilization means fusion of male and female gametes then.
How do these male and female gametes come together for fusion for that the male gametes should reach the female gametes but how do the pollen grains travel from anther to stigma they travel from anther to stigma by the help of air water insects and other animals the transfer of pollen from stamen to pistol is called pollination if it occurs in the same flower or between the flowers of same plant it is called self-pollination if.
Pollination takes place between two flowers of different plants it is called cross-pollination the pollen grains produced by the anther are transferred to the stigma of the pistol the pollen grain germinates and produces a long tube called pollen tube into the style to reach the ovule the pollen nucleus and to germ cells travel through the pollen tube and fertilizes the egg after fertilization the zygote divides several times to form an embryo.
Within the ovule the petals sepals stamens style and stigma mesh evil and fall off the ovule develops into a seed the ovary grows to form a fruit human male reproductive system.
Let’s talk about Human Reproductive System!
In this content we’ll see the different parts of human male reproductive system and date specific jobs human male reproductive system is made up of different organs like distance scrotum vast difference seminal vesicles prostate gland penis and urethra human male reproductive system has two main functions one to produce the male reproductive cells hormones and accessory materials two to deposit them in the female reproductive system now let’s see which part of the male reproductive system produces germ cells.
The formation of germ cells or sperms takes place in the testes they are present outside the abdominal cavity in sack like structure called scrotum if testes are important organs of male reproductive system then why they are located outside the abdominal cavity because sperm formation requires a lower temperature than the normal body temperature testes also produces a hormone called testosterone what is the use of testosterone.
It is a male reproductive hormone which regulates the formation of sperms and also responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics during puberty sperms that are produced in the testes need some support to fluid secretions to get delivered into the female reproductive system which organs produce those secretions prostate gland and seminal vesicles this accrete certain fluid secretions.
That provide nutrients to the sperm cells now let’s see the journey of sperm cells sperm cells formed in the testes or traveled through a tube called vast difference and on the way they are joined with the fluid secretions from prostate gland and seminal vesicles the vas deferens is a common duct for both the sperms and urine it is also connected to urinary bladder the sperms are tiny bodies that consist of mainly genetic material and along tail that helps them to move towards the female germ cell.
How these perms are deposited in the female reproductive system!
The sperm from VA deferens enters another duct called urethra which is surrounded and supported by a muscular organ called penis pennies is the organ that deposits the sperms in the female reproductive system it becomes hard and erect during the time of mating male reproductive system in this video we will see the structure and functions of human female reproductive system let’s see the different parts of the female reproductive system ovaries there are a pair of ovaries in the female reproductive system that contain the premature.
Two egg cells oviducts there are two oviducts which unite into an elastic bag like structure known as uterus it is called the ohm where the implantation and development of baby takes place cervix the uterus opens into the vagina through the cervix vagina itis the passage where sperms are deposited by the penis of male reproductive system during sexual intercourse now let’s see the production of female gametes then do girls start producing excels when a girl is born the ovaries already contain thousands.
Of immature eggs by reaching puberty the eggs start maturing one egg is produced every month by one of the ovaries the egg released by the ovary is collected in the fallopian tube you’ll it is the place where the fertilization takes place by the fusion of sperm and egg cells then how do the sperms reach fallopian tube you’ll the sperms get deposited in the vagina of the female reproductive system by the penis of the male reproductive system during sexual intercourse the sperms travel towards fallopian tube.
You’ll and finally reaches the egg cell and fertilizes it the hormones secreted by the ovaries prepares the uterus to receive and nurture the growing embryo the walls of the uterus becomes thick and richly supplied with blood to nourish the growing embryo the fertilized egg the zygote gets implanted in the lining of the uterus and starts dividing placentas a special tissue that helps the embryo to get nutrition from the mother’s blood.
It is embedded in the uterine wall and provides glucose and oxygen to the embryo placenta also transferred the waste generated by the embryo into the mother’s blood the development of the child inside the mother’s body takes approximately nine months this period is called as gestation period the child is born as a result of rhythmic contractions of the muscles in the uterus sexual maturation in human beings humans reproduced by sexual method in this method male reproductive cells fuse with female reproductive cells.
But when do these males and females start producing reproductive cells humans start producing reproductive cells by the beginning of a period called puberty at what age do boys and girls enter dis puberty there is no specific age but they enter into puberty in adolescence and all a sense is the stage between childhood and adulthood how do we know that puberty has started in someone we can notice the onset of puberty in boys and girls with.
Some noticeable changes happening in their bodies some changes are common in both boys and girls like thick hair growing in new parts of the body such as armpits and the genital area between the thighs which can also become darker in color thinner hair can also appear on legs and hands the skin frequently becomes oily and they might begin to develop pimples there are certain changes observed only in boys like growth of hail on the face – voices begin to crack and the third.
One the pain is occasionally begins to become enlarged and erect there are certain changes observed only in girls like one breast size begins to increase with darkening of the skin of the nipples at the tip of the breasts – they begin to menstruate all of these changes take place slowly over a long period of time they do not happen at an exact age in all it depends upon their hormone levels and genetics of the individuals as people are different in general body features like height weight skin color etc.
People also will have differences in secondary sexual characteristics like body head grow growth of beard and moustache penis size breast size etc. So we have seen the changes that happens during puberty but how these changes are linked to the reproduction process changes in puberty helps in the process of reproduction and childbirth for example body and facial hay or the signals that show the sexual maturity of the individual the erection of pennies helps in the deposition of germ cells in the female reproductive system the menstrual cycle is the indication of ovulation and the condition of uterus the enlargement of breast is for breast feeding of the baby so in.
This content we have seen the development of sexual characteristics in humans in the next content we will see the structure and functioning of human reproduction systems reproductive healthy reproduction system started producing sex cells can I participate in a sexual act and produce babies no before you participate in a sexual act you should consider the possible consequences what are the consequences involved in participating in a sexual act the major consequences involved in participating in a sexual act or health consequences do you know during sexual intercourse there is a very intimate contact between.
The male and female bodies there may be chance of transfer of germs and infections between the partners it may cause diseases what kind of diseases are spread by sexual contact the diseases that are spread through sexual contact are called sexually transmitted diseases in short form they are cellists here are a few examples of stds gonorrhea and syphilis these two diseases are caused by bacteria wit’s and HIV or AIDS these two are caused by virus the sexually transmitted diseases can be prevented by using a condom.
What is a condom is a rubbery covering?
This non the penis or inside a vagina during sexual intercourse to prevent the sexually transmitted diseases up to some extent condoms helped to prevent pregnancy also when a girl is ready to be pregnant to become pregnant a girl should be physically mentally socially and emotionally ready if not the health of the girl will be adversely affected then how to stop pregnancy we can avoid pregnancy by using contraceptive methods one mechanical barriers example condoms by using male or female condoms one can avoid pregnancy condoms act as a barrier and prevent the entry of sperms into the female reproductive system two chemical contraceptives example oral pills these pills change.
The hormonal balance of the human and stop the release of egg and fertilization but changing hormonal balance leads to so many side effects three contraceptive devices example copper tea or loop-the-loop or the copper tea are placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy they can cause irritation and leads to various side effects for surgical methods of contraception examples vasectomy Archambeau time vasectomy.
If the vast difference in the male is blocked by a small surgery sperm transfer will be prevented this method is called vasectomy – back to me if the fallopian tube you’ll in the female is blocked by small surgery the egg will not be able to reach the uterus surgical methods are permanent they are safe in long run and followed by families who doesn’t want pregnancy what happens if contraceptives are failed and.
Unwanted pregnancy happens medical termination of pregnancy can be removed by medical surgery but it will be done only under special circumstances abortion our medical termination of pregnancy is illegal if it is done by someone’s choice it is misused in our country many families have reluctant to girl child it is leading to illegal sex selective abortion of female fetuses for this reason prenatal sex determination has been prohibited by the law